African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD)
- is a South African-based civil society organization working throughout Africa to bring African solutions to the challenges posed by conflict on the continent. ACCORD's primary aim is to influence political developments by bringing conflict resolution, dialogue and institutional development to the forefront as an alternative to armed violence and protracted conflict. ACCORD specializes in conflict management, analysis and prevention and intervenes in conflicts through mediation, negotiation, training, research and conflict analysis.
African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM)
is an important instrument of the New Partnership for Africa's Development and is a self-monitoring mechanism of the African Union. Its mandate is to ensure that the policies and practices of participating countries conform to the agreed values in the following four focus areas:
- democracy and political governance;
- economic governance;
- corporate governance;
- socio-economic development.
The APRM periodically reviews the policies and practices of participating countries to ensure that progress is made in all four areas.
African Union (AU)
- consists of 53 African states and was officially constituted in Durban, South Africa, in 2002, to take over from the Organization of African Unity (OAU). The AU was established to accelerate the process of political and economic integration of the continent and to promote unity and solidarity among African states. The AU is composed of:
Assembly of Heads of State and Government
- Composed of heads of state and government of AU member states.
- It meets once a year and makes its decisions by consensus or by a two-thirds majority.
- Is the Secretariat of the AU.
- Is composed of the Chairperson, the Deputy Chairperson, eight commissioners, and staff members.
- Coordinates the activities and meetings of the AU.
- Is made up of ministers designated by the governments of member states.
- Prepares material for the Assembly, to whom they are responsible.
- Makes decisions on foreign trade, social security, food, agriculture and communication.
- Is composed of elected representatives from all the AU states.
- Ten committees oversee and coordinate efforts on various issues.
Court of Justice
- Will soon be merged with the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights.
- Will also act as the supreme court of the AU, interpreting all necessary laws and treaties.
Court of Human and Peoples' Rights
- Rules on AU member states' compliance with the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights.
African Women's Committee on Peace and Development (AWCPD)
- was originally established in 1998 as part of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in recognition of the crucial role women can play in peace processes. With the transformation of the OAU into the African Union (AU), it became the African Union Women's Committee (AUWC). It is now an advisory body to the AU and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) on issues relating to gender, peace, security, stability and development in Africa.
Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations in a Consultative Relationship with the United Nations (CONGO)
- is an independent, international, non-profit association of NGOs which facilitates the participation of NGOs in UN debates and decisions in Geneva.
UN Division on the Advancement of Women (DAW)
- as part of its mandate, DAW strives to stimulate the mainstreaming of gender perspectives both within and outside the UN system. For example, DAW acted as the substantive secretariat for the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995, the largest conference in UN history. The Division aims to promote women as equal participants in and beneficiaries of sustainable development, peace and security, governance and human rights.
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
- is a UN body that assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ECOSOC has 54 members, all of whom are elected by the General Assembly for a three-year term. ECOSOC's functions include information gathering, advising member states and making recommendations. In addition, ECOSOC is well positioned to provide policy coherence and coordinate the overlapping functions of the UN's subsidiary bodies.
Gender is my Agenda Campaign
- officially launched at the Banjul Conference in June 2006, the Gender is my Agenda Campaign is a network of women's organizations which aims to disseminate to a wider audience the Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality in Africa made at that conference, as well as to monitor, evaluate and report on its implementation. Human Rights Council (HRC)
- is the recent successor to the UN Commission on Human Rights. The Council is mandated to promote and protect the enjoyment and full realization, by all people, of all rights established in the Charter of the United Nations and in international human rights laws and treaties. The mandate includes preventing human rights violations, securing respect for all human rights, promoting international cooperation to protect human rights, coordinating related activities throughout the UN and strengthening and streamlining the UN system in the field of human rights.
New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD)
- is an economic development programme created by the African Union (AU), which aims to develop policies and monitor their implementation within the framework of the AU. Some of the goals of its policies include: promoting accelerated growth and sustainable development; eradicating widespread and severe poverty; and ending the marginalization of Africa in the globalization process.
UN Peacebuilding Commission (PBC)
- aims to marshal resources at the disposal of the international community to advise on and propose strategies for post-conflict recovery. For countries emerging from conflict, reconstruction, institution building and sustainable development are the main priorities. The PBC also aims to ensure predictable financing for early recovery activities and sustained financial investment over the medium to long term.
Truth and Reconciliation Commission
- has the task of investigating and revealing past violations of human rights by a government or individuals, in the hope of resolving tensions left over from periods of internal unrest, civil war or dictatorship. Commissions grant amnesty to those who make full disclosures of the relevant facts, relating to violations committed in the course of the conflicts, and aim to afford the victims an opportunity to relate the abuses they suffered.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
- is the UN's global development network. It aims to create networks for countries to share knowledge, experience and resources that will help people build a better life. UNDP aims to help countries build and share solutions to the challenges of: democratic governance; poverty reduction; crisis prevention and recovery; energy and environment; and HIV/Aids. It also encourages the protection of human rights and the empowerment of women.
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA)
- is one of five regional commissions under the administrative direction of UN headquarters. As the regional arm of the UN in Africa, it is mandated to support the economic and social development of its 53 member states, foster regional integration and promote international cooperation for Africa's development. It reports to the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
- is mandated to lead and coordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another state, with the option to return home voluntarily, to integrate locally or to resettle in a third country. The UNHCR's mandate has gradually been expanded to include protecting and providing humanitarian assistance to what it describes as other persons "of concern", including internally displaced people (IDPs).
United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)
- is the UN women's fund. It provides financial and technical assistance to innovative programmes and strategies to foster women's empowerment and gender equality. Placing the advancement of women's human rights at the centre of all of its efforts, UNIFEM focuses its activities on four strategic areas:
- reducing feminized poverty;
- ending violence against women;
- reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS among women and girls;
- achieving gender equality in democratic governance in times of peace as well as war.
United Nations Security Council
- is the organ charged with maintaining peace and security among nations. The Security Council has the power to make resolutions, which member governments must implement under the Charter of the United Nations. The Security Council is made up of 15 member states, consisting of five permanent members, which have the power of veto over substantive resolutions, and ten temporary seats, which are voted in on a regional basis by the UN General Assembly every two years.